A modern history of China is the Chinese nation to fight for national independence and people's liberation struggle constantly magnificent picture. In this 109-year process, occurred in 1919, 54 campaign is a great historical turning point. It is China's move has opened up a completely new road, opened the prelude to the Chinese democratic revolution.
One might ask: Fourth Movement exerted great influence before and after the "youth magazine" (later renamed the "New Youth"), founded in 1915, led the Chinese democratic revolution, the victory of the Chinese Communist Party was born in 1921, why May Fourth Movement is a great historical turning point in it?
In fact, as long as May Fourth Movement before and after comparison can be seen that the situation has undergone fundamental changes.
Patriotic Salvation: May Fourth Movement starting point for
May Fourth Movement is by no means occurred in a vacuum, nor is it simply a small number of advanced elements of the subjective will and determination will be able to launch up. It is the historical trend of the product of the Chinese patriotic salvation Raging Tide in the new historical conditions to continue and develop. After all, people are excited when the situation of the motherland out of misery filled with grief, the creation of a strong and rational pursuit of a new society is the May Fourth Movements that can take place inherent dynamism.
Living in today's young people may be difficult to imagine how the time China was in misery; may be difficult to realize, that generation of Chinese who could barely see the bright future that the difficult years, is how the motherland The tragic fate of the suffering endured great suffering.
As we all know, the Chinese have created a living world in terms of the splendid ancient civilization, and in thousands of years, never been stopped, never stopped. However, China has largely left behind in modern times. After the Opium War in Western countries under the threat of gunboat diplomacy, China began to lose their independent status, reduced to a semi-feudal society. The failure of Sino-Japanese War, gave the Chinese a great stimulus. Opening the first page of the history of the 20th century, showing in front of the Chinese people is a more soul-stirring picture: the Eight-armed occupation of the West of China's capital Beijing over a year.
Chinese really want to die it? Former glory with the reality of being trampled upon the strong contrast between the form, so that every bloody Chinese people share this feeling of humiliation and misery particularly intolerable. "Rejuvenating" This resounding slogan of Sun Yat-sen is the forerunner of Chinese democratic revolution; the Sino-Japanese War took place that year, calling out. It became the Chinese people generation after generation of tenacious goal.
However, the road ahead is not smooth. After that, the Japanese militarists ambitions for hegemony in East Asia, the start of an unprecedented scale and barbaric aggression against looting. Yuan them to attempt to monopolize the Chinese Government, "21." After World War I began in January 1919 at the Paris peace conference, one of China as the victors, the original expectation that the vanquished German privileges in Shandong Juequ returned to China, while the Paris Peace Conference was not discussed in these privileges then handed over to Japan. Paris and will be attending on behalf of Wellington Koo of China, wrote in his memoirs: "In the past we have thought of the final package may not be good, but never expected result was so miserable."
This matter to the Chinese people's incentives is too high. The original enthusiasm for holding high expectations of the "axiom over power", thus all come to naught. High expectations, so that the pain caused by this disappointment particularly strong.
Finally, as angry as the volcano erupted in May 3rd, 1919, Peking University, all students of the General Assembly to convene and about Beijing for more than 13 middle schools, delegates decided to hold the next day scholars gathered in large demonstrations in Tiananmen Square. They wrote the Declaration of the classical: "Shandong death is dead carry on! Our compatriots at this earth, there is such a mountains and rivers, how can I see this rape of bullying, oppression, I, slave me, oxen and horses I die without making a lifetime of 10000 SOS peace! "Vernacular declaration, wrote:" China's land can be conquered and can not be ruined! Chinese people may be killed but not to bow their heads! Countries die of! fellow up! "
This is the text written in blood and tears. State the critical potential, the nation suffering painful, but also inspiring. May Fourth Movement is in this context of start-ups.
Mass movement of the baptism of storm
May Fourth Movement a case, it is to see: In the land of China swept the first time in the country, with the participation of all social strata of the population momentum magnificent mass movement. This is the history of Chinese nation has never happened before.
In the past, there have been many Chinese people against imperialism and the feudal rulers of the action, but they either purely military action, or that only a few people took part, and only in some areas of the patriotic activities. The domination of imperialism and feudal old China's rulers have a deep-rooted strength. If only a small number of people did not rise up into the general population, the natural anomaly that power weak, far enough to overcome such a powerful enemy. Previous revolutions in modern times in the past as well as the failure of the reform movement, which is a major cause.
May Fourth Movement completes different story. May 4th day, shouting "fight outside the country the right to punish within the traitor" and other slogans in Beijing more than a dozen schools in the thousands of teachers and students in Tiananmen Square before the collection of first-Dong Jiao Min Xiang foreign embassies to protest, but can not be blocked. Angry students rushed to the issue in Shandong Province has a serious responsibility, Cao Rulin home to take drastic action, and many students were arrested. The next day, a general strike happened in Beijing universities, secondary school students also participate. The rapid movement into the country in May 7th, Shanghai, more than 20000 students and the community rallies to protest. 9, that year Yuan recognition of the "21" anniversary of the national humiliation, Shanghai, many schools closed today, and many business groups close for one day, all day entertainment to cease operation. June 3, Beijing, news of the arrest came a large number of students, and many industrial workers in the factory announced the strike. According to Deng Xia, "A Brief History of the Chinese trade union movement," it reads: "A total number of people is no concrete statistics about Liu Qiwan people." Chinese workers began an independent attitude, with such scale of the action on the political stage; this is also the history of China first time event. In addition, the divergent responses started around which are particularly intense, Jinan, Tianjin, Wuhan, Changsha and so on.
May Fourth Movement Eve, China seems wrapped in a land of darkness, the revolution at low ebb. Northern warlords in Wanxi control in Japan, supported by the central government, are clamoring that the "force unification." Looking within the four seas, as if there is no sufficient force to contend with the forces of darkness. No one would have thought that, in the original of people in ruined quite a silence broke out this amazing big storm.
Type of mass movement of storm erosion, often large group of large group of people can make dramatic short period of time in terms of ideology and great changes. Movement, the students go to the street address, to the workers and area survey, the organization Common School, breaking the previous narrow circle of intellectuals in contact with society around them was also found that there is a broader world, are beginning to see their own weaknesses, Then he would make "little me" and into the "Big I", it dedicated to the "big me." The tens of thousands of people's thinking big changes, under normal circumstances is often difficult to achieve for many years, nor are a few publications or the impact of several speeches can be compared.
At that time China's advanced elements, including early Communists, almost no one has never been subjected to May Fourth Movement. Qu Qiu-bai shortly after exercise in 54 wrote: "From Beijing to May Fourth Movement prior to entry, a total of three years, I am most Kuji career. Huubang of communication can be said that an absolute cut off. Beijing city new bureaucracy 'republic' in Life gives me great pain by the one stimulated. World-weary view of philosophy as the philosophy of my three years of research higher degree. "" May 4th Movement break out suddenly, I went to the fray. a lonely life for broke. "" At that time the meaning of the patriotic movement must not be interpreted too literally in his. the exploitation of the Chinese nation for decades, until today to feel the colonization of the status of taste. Imperialist oppression of the cut bone pain, touch awoke vague democratic nightmare. the student movement of the primers, Shandong issues, already included here. industrially advanced countries of the modern problem is that capitalism is imperialism in the colony, so the student movement Shuran a change for the sake tend to socialism, that is for this reason. "
Unprecedented scale of this mass movement, but also the advanced elements of the time so that really see the realization of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation a source of strength lies. WU Yu-Zhang recalled May Fourth Movement, said: "This is really exciting one, which is truly great historical turning point. The past, we have seen a revolution though some scenes of mass movement, but have never seen such sweeping the country The majestic vast momentum. the impact of shocks in the mass movement, the whole of China recovering from a slumber and began its youthful vitality. "" In contrast to May 4th mass movements; the upper how social forces also seems insignificant. in the masses of the people in the hidden power of once liberated, it would be a really earth-shattering, all-conquering. "
This is a brand new path.
Marxism became the mainstream of new ideas
54 after exercise is an important change is that of Marxism and scientific socialism became the mainstream of China's advanced intellectual. It is in this sense; it can be referred to as the beginning of the new democratic revolution.
From the beginning of the New Culture Movement, founded by Chen Duxiu the "new youth" began. New Culture Movement hold high the banner of democracy and science. The opposite of democracy and autocracy, the opposite of science is ignorance and superstition; this is the consequence of several thousand years of feudal rule. Lu Xun in the "New Youth" published novel "A Madman's Diary" has a popular of the famous: "I have to turn over a check, this history does not age, crooked, both written on each leaf 'virtue and morality' of several word. I could not sleep if they had carefully read the middle of the night before to see words from the word crevices, full texts are written in the word is 'eating people'! "" New Youth "on the old feudal thinking, old culture , old ethics of criticism, its sharp complete the degree Suoxiangwuqian momentum, far exceeding the 1911 Revolution period, not to mention before, and indeed played a role in enlightening enlightenment. It brings emancipation of the mind, for people to accept new ideas and made an important preparation.
Beginning of the New Culture Movement in the Western-style democracy is still carried out under the banner, advocating individual-centered "independent personality" and "personality liberation", the focus is mainly the rights of individuals, rather than the overall interests of the people, it can not fundamental to the long-suffering Chinese people specified in the real way out. At that time, the Norwegian writer Henrik Ibsen's play "Nora," has great influence in China, writing is the heroine Nora's not willing to do "her husband's puppet" and running away from home, was hailed as "female consciousness." Lu Xun was a "Nora was gone how" speech, saying: "to engage in reasoned arguments on the up, Nora or it is really only two ways: It is not degenerate, that is to come back. Because if it is a bird, then the a cage of course, not free, but one came out the door, the outside there will be eagles, there are cats, and something else like. "
Indeed, when China's social reality is so dark, the old society does not transform the individual and then to have no future. From the restructuring of society, the vast majority of people, even difficult to be guaranteed to survive, let alone any personal liberation and personal future. If we only stay in the cultural field, the chatter is going to talk about, still only empty talk, it is impossible to make China's problems are fundamentally resolved. The initial conditions of the New Culture Movement due to social constraints can do so, but it is not enough, need to continue to move forward. Then, the "transformation of society", "building a new society," an increasing demand, in the intellectual has been a prominent position.
However, in the initial period of time, for the reality of how society should transform, to build a new society is how, and China where the real way out for these problems, it is not clear. The Russian October Socialist Revolution in people's eyes start to a new heaven and earth, so that people see a vivid new socialist system. Why has it as big as the Chinese people's attention? The reason is that China has such a need within the community; it is hard to think the issue has given the advanced elements been a new answer. As a pioneer of the Li Dazhao written, "the victory of common people," "the victory of Bolshevism," is the Chinese people to accept the road as early as reflecting the October Revolution. Of course, at that time not many people know this.
After May Fourth Movement, the situation is quite different. In the climax of May Fourth Movement, people in a state of unusual excitement. After such a violent storm erosion, the next? Where is China's way out? Climax in the movement of those days and nights, people from the past as well as the quiet solitude of the small world where woken up by the fiery plunge into the collective life. When the movement has gradually settled the whole affair, the number of people return to their old habits of life of the path to the part of the advanced elements of turning a deeper exploration, and, and some like-minded people together to form a socialist group. At that time, the propagation of Marxism center there are two places: one is in Beijing, one in Shanghai. In Beijing, the propagation of Marxism base is Peking University. Early in 1920, presided over by Li Da-zhao, the university organized a group of young students in the study of Marxist Theory. In Shanghai, Chen Duxiu and a group of students studying in Japan was established in May the same year, the study of Marxism. Chen Wang Tao translated and published the "Communist Manifesto", which are the basic writings of Marxism's first full Chinese translation. Marxism and become a new trend of thought in the mainstream. In 1921, China had a considerable number of young people receiving advanced Marxism and the establishment of the Chinese Communist Party.
Received the advanced elements of Marxism is not to abandon the banner of democracy and science, but the banner of democracy and science continues to struggle, and give them to new and more complete content, as it is not obliterate individuality but rather individual emancipation and social transformation together, like the big goal. The vast majority of Chinese people are workers and peasants, among them if I do not go, do not take full account of their interests and concerns, only to look to stay in a few narrow circle of intellectuals, then, regardless of how the arguments for democracy intense, is still only part of a minority of people even of democracy, not to mention a wide range of genuine people's democracy. Science, the most fundamental thing is to realistic and in line with the objective law of development of things. Neither should be bound by rigid dogma, nor is academic reasoning alone can solve the problem, must be deeply rooted in Chinese society in the soil, down to earth to find and progress in promoting China's social change approach. This naturally than just talk on the study or conference room to be much more difficult. It can be said that after 54 campaigns, people's understanding of democracy and science, more profound than ever before, more pertinent in the light.
Acceptance of the advanced elements of Marxism and the New Culture Movement is the beginning of democracy and scientific ideas of those who inherit and carry forward the same time, they created a new situation, the establishment of the Chinese Communist Party ideology and cadres were made on the preparation.
This is a new starting point. The socialist new China is from this point onwards, through the National People's 30 years of struggle, step by step implementation. Today, under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party, we are moving in the cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics and strive to create a new situation and achieve the great rejuvenation of Chinese nation's grand goal of advancing with giant strides.